A.B., Exp. Psych., Harvard College, 1948
Ph.D., Quant. Psych., Tilburg Univ.(Neth), 1983


Production Manager; Chief Electronics Engineer: General Control Co., Boston, Mass., 1943-1950;

Consulting Engineer, Wellesley, Mass., 1948-1950;

Research Psychologist; Head Sections: Apparatus, Controls, Environments; U.S.A.F. AML, WPAFB, Ohio, 1950-1956;

Head, Department of Psychology; U.S.A.F. Arctic Aero Medical Laboratory, Fairbanks, Alaska, 1956-1957;

Principal Research Scientist; Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co., Minneapolis, Minn., 1957-1962;

Lecturer, Dep't. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1959;

Dep't. Hd.; Principal Scientist; Consultant; Bolt, Beranek & Newman, Inc., Cambridge, Mass., 1962-1970;

Lecturer And Senior Research Associate in Psychology; Brandeis University, 1965-1972;

Senior Lecturer Dep't. of Mechanical Engineering; M.I.T., 1966-1967;

President; Senders Associates, Inc., Waltham, MA 1968-1973;

Visiting Professor, 1973; Prof., 1974-1985; Prof. Emer., 1985-present Dept. of Mech. & Ind. Engineering; Univ. of Toronto;

Senior Research Associate in Psychology; University of California at Santa Barbara, 1979-1980;

Research Prof. of Engineering and Psychology, 1981-1988; Prof. of Mech. Eng., 1989-1990; Univ. of Maine, Orono;

President, Emsco, Inc., Columbia Falls, ME, 1982-1997;

President, 1981-1985; Chairman, 1986-1993; Human Factors North, Inc., Toronto, Ontario;

Principal Scientific Consultant, Inst. for Safe Medication Practice, 1992-present;

President, 1996-present, 1200519 Ontario, Inc. Toronto

Instructor, Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, Toronto 1997-present

Member, Board of Trustees; Inst. for Safe Medication Practice-Canada, Jan., 2000-present

Member, Task Force on Medication Error, Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists, 1999-present


Listed:American Men and Women of Science (Physical Science)


Fellow:Amer.Assoc.for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
American Psychological Society (APS)
American Psychological Association (APA)
Human Factors & Ergonomics Society

Sen.Mem.:Inst. of Electrical & Electronic Engineers (IEEE)

Member:Canadian Association of Law Teachers
Human Factors Association of Canada
Psychonomic Society
Society for the History of Technology
Toxicological History Society

President:Soc. of Eng. Psych; Div. 21, APA, 1979-1980.
Chairman:Pr.Grp. Human Elect. IEEE 1965-1966.


Comm. on Bioastronautics, Nat.Res.Council, US 1959-1960;
Man-in-Space Comm., Space Science Board., NAS, US 1960-62;
Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics,
Nat.Res.Council, US 1962-1980;
Committee on Vision, Nat.Res.Council, US 1970-1980;
Communications Committee; APA, 1970-1973;
Council of Representatives, APA, 1971-1974;
Highway Safety Committee, Highway Research Board,US 1965-1972;
Road User Characteristics Comm, Highway Res.Bd, US 1972-1980;
Industrial Engineering Grant Selection Committee,
Nat.Res.Council (Canada), 1974-1976; Chair, 1976-1977;
Advisory Board for Life Sciences Research, USAF Off.
Scientific.Research, 1985-1990
Consortium on Infusion Management Safety, Communicore 1992-1994


Member:Ergonomics in Design

Past Member:
Accident Analysis and Prevention;
Communication Technology Impact;
Computer Communications.
Computer Compacts.
International Journal of Man-Machine Studies;
Journal of General Psychology;
Journal of Research Communication Studies;
Organizational Behavior and Human Performance;


Automobile driver information processing
Computer-Human Interaction
Design of electronic publications systems
Design of safe medical devices
Human information processing
Human perceptual-motor skills
Models of visual monitoring behaviour
Nature and source of human error
Quantification of mental workload
User-Machine interaction


Technical:Human visual monitoring and control tasks;
The measurement of human workload;
Human error and reliability;
Computer based information systems; and generally,
Application of human factors/ergonomics, behavioural
science, statistics and man-machine systems analysis to
a variety of problems of vehicles, medical devices and
nuclear power plant control rooms.

Litigation and other actions arising from:
Infringement of trademarks, registered names, registered
marks, and other intellectual property.

Personal injury, product and warning design, workplace
safety, user-machine interaction, medical equipment
design problems and the like.

Injury and death as result of medication error,
confusion between names of pharmaceuticals,
and the like.

Issues of responsibility for accident, injury and loss
arising from human error.


"Tracking Performance on Combined Compensatory and Pursuit Tasks", (with M. Cruzen) WADC TR 52-39, 1952.

"The Influence of Surround on Tracking Performance, Part I. Tracking of Combined Pursuit and Compensatory One Dimensional Tasks with and without a Structured Surround", WADC TR 52-229, 1952

"Correlation Computation", (w/V.S. Haneman, Jr.) J. Assn. for Computing Machinery, 2, 4, 1955

"Tracking with Intermittently Illuminated Displays", WADC TR 55-378, 1955.

"Comparison of a Single Operator's Performance with Team Performance in a Tracking Task", (w/J.M.Christensen & R.Sabeh) WADC TN 55-362, 1955.

"The Peripheral Viewing of Dials", (w/I.B. Webb & C.A. Baker) J. Appl. Psychol. 39,6, 1955.

"Man's Capacity to use Information from Complex Displays", In Information Theory in Psychology, H.Quastler,ed.; The Free Press, Glencoe, IL 1955.

"Effect of Backlash on Manual Control of Pitch of a Simulated Aircraft", (w/J.V. Bradley) WADC TR 56-107, 1956.

"Tracking with Intermittent Stimuli (Forced Sampling)", ARDC TR 56-8, 1956.

"The Use of Reaction Devices for Personal Propulsion", Minneapolis-Honeywell Aero. Doc. R-ED 6055, 1957.

"Some Comments on Motor Skills Data", Proc. Nat'l. Symp. Human Factors in Systems Engineering, Dec. 1957

"Reactions to Sequences of Signals", (with R. Gottsdanker) Minneapolis-Honeywell Aero. Doc. U-ED 6108, 1959.

"An Application of Human Dynamics Data", (with T.E. Leonard) Minneapolis-Honeywell Aero. Doc. R-Ed 6125, 1959.

"Human Tracking Behaviour", Minneapolis-Honeywell Aero. Doc.U-ED 6141, 1959.

"Survey of Human Dynamics Data and a Sample Application", WADC TR 59-712, 1959

"Some Application of Mathematical Models in the Design of Advanced Control Systems", Proc. 5th Army-Navy Instrumentation Program Symposium, 1959.

"Woodpile Revisited: A Comment on Gibbins' and Howarth's Failure to Repeat Senders' Findings", (w/V.L.Senders) Quart. J. Exp. Psych, Part 3, 1962.

"Manual Controls for the Apollo Vehicle: Data and Recommendations", BBN Rep't. 944,1962.

"Information Storage Requirements of the World's Libraries", Science, 141, 3585, 1963.

"The Human Operator as a Monitor and Controller of Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Systems", IEEE Trans. Human Factors in Electronics, HFE-1: 1, 2-5, 1964.

"Tracking Performance as a Function of Exponential Delay and Learning", (w/M. Levine, R.L. Morgan, & L. Doxtator) AMRL-TR-64-104, 1964.

"The Human Operator", (w/J. Crocker)In Bioastronautics Data Book,Paul Webb, ed., NASA SP-3006, Wash. D.C. 1964.

"Manual Control and Display in Six Degrees of Freedom", (with R.C.McLane, H.G.Sperling, & D.A. Anderson) Proc. 5th Nat'l.Symposium on Human Factors in Electronics, San Diego, CA. 1964.

"Adaptive Teaching Machines", In Programmed Learning and Computer-Based Instruction, J.B. Coulson,ed.; John Wiley and Sons,Inc., NY, 1964.

"An Investigation of Visual Attention and Operator Workload Measurement", Bolt, Beranek & Newman, Rep't. 1236, 1965.

"Multiple Criteria for Assessing Tracking Performance: The Assessment of Step Input Tracking", (w/J. Ward & D.Bjorkgren) BBN Rep't. 1287, May 1965.

"An Investigation of the Visual Sampling Behavior of Human Observers", (w/ J. Elkind, M. Grignetti, & R. Smallwood) NASA CR 434, 1965.

"Men and Computers", (with T.B. Sheridan & W.R. Ferrell) IEEE Spectrum, 1965

"An Investigation of Automobile Driver Information Processing", (with A. Kristofferson, W. Levison, C. Dietrich, & J. Ward) BBN Rep't. 1335, April 1966.

"The Coffee Cup Illusion", Am.J.Psychol. 79:1, 143-145, 1966.

"A Reanalysis of the Pilot Eye-Movement Data", IEEE Trans. Human Factors in Electron. HFE-7: 2, 103-106, 1966.

"Methodological Studies of Tracking Behavior: The Effect of Various Supplemental Information Feedbacks", (with J. Ward) BBN Rep't. 1458, March 1967.

"Human Performance", Intern. Sci.& Technol., 55, 58-68, July 1966

"The Attentional Demand of Automobile Driving", (with A.B. Kristofferson, W.H. Levison, C.W. Dietrich & J.L. Ward) Highway Research Record, No. 195, 15-32, 1967.

"On the Distribution of Attention in a Dynamic Environment", Acta Psychologica, 27: 349-354, 1967.

"A Historical Note and Book Review", IEEE Trans. Human Factors in Electronics, HFE-8:4, 285-286, 1967.

"A Queueing Model of Visual Sampling; Experimental Validation", with J. Carbonell & J. Ward) IEEE Trans. on Man-Machine Systems, MMS-9: 3, 82-87, 1968.

"Human Visual Sampling Processes: A Simulation Validation Study", (w/J.Carbonell & J. Ward) BBN Rep't. 1681, 1968.

"Additional Studies of Driver Information Processing", (with J. Ward) BBN Rep't. 1738, Nov. 1968.

"Visual Sampling Behavior", IEEE Nerem Record, 196-197, 1968.

"The Estimation of Operator Workload in Complex Systems", In Psychological Factors in Systems, K.B.DeGreene, ed. McGraw-Hill, 1970.

"Adaptive Vehicle Control Trainers", Commemorative Technical Journal, US Naval Training Device Center, Nov., 1971

"PWI Simulation Experiments", (with R. Curry, E. Day & J.Dumeurger) M.I.T., Dep't. of Aero. & Astro., 1972.

"The Effect of Signal Probabilities on the Time Required to Redirect the Gaze", (with W. Rankin) Naval Training Devices Center, Orlando, FL, NTDC 70-C-0234-5, 1972.

"A Study of the Attentional Demand of VFR Helicopter Pilotage", NTDC 71-C-0215-1, 1973.

"The Retrieval of Phonetically Similar and Dissimilar Category Members", (with E. Loftus & S. Turkletaub) Am. J. Psychol. 87: 1–2,57–63, 1974.

"Scientific Publication Systems; An Analysis of Past, Present and Future Methods of Scientific Communication", (with C. Anderson & C. Hecht) NTIS, PB 242-259, 1975.

"A Skeptical Believer", Contemporary Psychology, 21: 8, 1976.

Eye Movements and Psychological Processes, (with R.A. Monty) Eds.; Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Hillsdale, N.J., 1976.

"Speculations and Notions", In Eye Movements and Psychological Processes, J. W. Senders and R. A. Monty, eds.; Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Hillsdale, N.J., 1976.

"A Queueing Model of Monitoring Behaviour", (with M. Posner) in Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control, T.B. Sheridan and G. Johannsen, eds; Plenum, New York, 1976.

"The Scientific Journal of the Future", The American Sociologist, 11: 160-164, 1976.

"An On-Line Scientific Journal", The Information Scientist, II:1,3-9, 1977.

"Scientific Publication Systems", in AGARD Report CP-225, NATO, London, 1977

"An Engineering Approach to Psycho Physiological Research", (with P. Milgram) Proc. Ann. Conf. on Psychophysiological Research (SPR), Philadelphia, Oct. 1977

"Eye Movements and the Higher Psychological Functions", (with D. Fisher and R. Monty) Eds.; Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Hillsdale, NJ, 1978.

"A Spectral Characterization of Human Autonomic Responsivity", (with P. Milgram) Proc. 10th Int'l. Conf. Cybernetics and Society, Tokyo, Japan, 1978.

"Estimation of Parameters Characterizing Human Autonomic Responses to Stress", (with P. Milgram) Proc. 15th Annual Conf. on Manual Control, U.S.A.F., 1979.

"Axiomatic Models of Workload", In Mental Workload: Its Theory and Measurement, N.Moray,ed.; Plenum Press, New York, 1979.

"Is There a Cure for Human Error?", Psychology Today 13:11, 52-62, 1980.

"On the Estimation of Mental Workload", (with R. Gottsdanker) AFOSR-79-0133, U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 1980.

"Eye Movements: Cognition and Visual Perception", (with D. Fisher, R. Monty) Eds.; Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Hillsdale, N.J., 1981.

"A matter of No Little Gravity", Contemporary Psychology 26:5, 371-372, 1981.

"Report from the Front Lines", Book review, Contemporary Psychology, 27:7, 519-520, 1982.

"Visual Scanning Processes", Tilburg, Netherlands, 1983; Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Hillsdale, NJ, 1984.

"Design Criteria for the Electronic Journal", INTERACT '84, the First IFIP Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, London, UK, Sept., 1984.

"Determination of a Method for Analysis of Operator Diagnosis Errors", Human Factors North (HFN) AECB, Canada, 1985.

"Task Analysis Methods Applicable to Control Room Design Review", (w/N.Moray and W.Rhodes) AECB, Canada, 1985.

"Modeling Operator Cognitive Interactions in Nuclear Power Plant Safety Evaluation", (with N.P. Moray, A. Smiley & A. Sellen) HFN AECB Canada, 1985.

"An Assessment of Human Factors Issues in the Safety of Ontario Nuclear Generating Stations", (with M.P. Feher, A. Smiley & K. Munhall)Ont.Nuclear Safety Review, 1987.

"The Development of Criteria for Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Emergency Procedures", (with M.P. Feher, N.P.Moray) HFN, AECB Canada, 1987.

"Evaluation of Full-Scope Simulator Testing Methods", (with M.P. Feher,N.P. Moray & K. Biron) HFN,AECB Canada, 1989.

"Human Error: Cause, Prevention and Reduction", (with N.P. Moray) LEA,Inc., Hillsdale, NJ,07642; 1991.

"Theory and Analysis of Typical Errors in a Medical Setting", Hospital Pharmacy, 28 (6), June, 1993.

"Providing a Sensory Basis for Models of Visual Information Acquisition", (with G.R. Loftus and T.A. Busey) Perception and Psychophysics, 54(4), 535-554, 1993.

"Who is Master; Who Slave?", (with K.Harwood) Ergonomics in Design, Human Factors & Ergonomics Society, Jan. 1994.

"Failure Mode and Effects Analysis: Dealing with Human Error", (with M. Cohen and N. Davis) Nursing-94, Springhouse Co., Springhouse, PA; February, 1994.

"12 Ways to Prevent Medication Errors", (with M. Cohen and N. Davis) Nursing-94, Springhouse Co., Springhouse, PA; February, 1994.

"Medical Devices, Medical Errors and Medical Accidents", In Human Error in Medicine, M.S. Bogner, ed; Erlbaum Assoc, Hillsdale, NJ; 1994.

"On the Evaluation of Warnings", Ergonomics in Design, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, CA, Summer, 1994.

"Detecting, Correcting and Interrupting Errors", Journal of Intravenous Nursing, Jan/Feb. 1995.

"Investigating Coordination in Multidegree of Freedom Control I: Time on Target Analysis of 6 DOF Tracking", (with S. Zhai) Proc. HFES, 1997.

"Investigating Coordination in Multidegree of Freedom Control II: Corrleation Analysis of 6 DOF Tracking", (with S. Zhai) Proc. HFES, 1997.

"Analysis of an Intersection", Ergonomics in Design; v 5, no. 2, April, 1998.

"Identifying Design Deficiencies through Anaesthetic Incidents", (w/Sellen, A.J. and Russell, W. J.) Trans. on Multi-Disciplinary Engineering, Vol. GE21. The Inst.of Eng., Australia, pp.57-66. 1998.

"Human Error Mode and Effects Analysis", (w/Senders,S.J.) In Medication Errors, M. Cohen, Amer. Pharma. Association, Washington DC, 1999.


Books: "Human Use of Nonlinear Controls",
A discussion of theory and data on the effects of nonlinearities
on manual positioning of cursors in human-computer interaction.

"Trademark Law & Cognitive Science",
(with C. Spring); An examination of the legal and the cognitive
bases for establishing confusion, secondary meaning, passing off
and similar issues of trademark and tradename litigation.


"Some Problems of Body Control under Zero-Gravity Conditions", Am.Ass'n for the Advancement of Science, Indianapolis, IN., Dec. 1957.

"Human Factors in the Design of Guidance and Control Systems for Missiles and Space Vehicles", ARDC Symp. on Guidance of Ballistic Missiles and Space Vehicles, WADC, Dayton, Ohio, March 1958.

"Information Input Rates to Human Users: Recent Research Results", WADC Symp. on Air Force Flight Instrumentation Program, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 1958.

"Early Development of a Space Vehicle Attitude Display and Control", (with O.H. Lindquist) Amer. Rocket Soc., Washington, D.C., Dec, 1960.

"Comments on Training Devices", Seminar on Human Factors in Military Training, U.S. Naval Training Devices Center, Port Washington, NY, March, 1961.

"Adaptive Man-Machine Systems", APA. St.Louis, September 1962.

"The Instructorless Trainer or How to Tell the Men from the Machines", N.E. Psychol. Assoc., Boston, Mass.,1962.

"Systems Analyses for Space Vehicles", IEEE Int'n'l. Conv., New York, March 1963.

"Sampling Behavior of Human Monitors", IEEE Int'n'l. Conv., Convention Record 13: 152,1965.

"An Information Processing Model for Automobile Driving", 5th Ann. Symp.on Human Factors, IEEE Boston, MA, May 1965.

"Workload Quantification", Human Factors Society Annual Meeting, Dayton, Ohio, Oct., 1965.

"Quantitative Theories of Human Scanning Processes", IEEE Int'l. Conv., New York, March 1966.

"Visual Displays for Human Use",'Guest Lecture in 'Modern Man-Machine Systems Theory', Eng. & Phys. Sciences Ext.UCLA, August 31, 1967.

"The Measurement of Workload in Mental Tasks", Invited address, 3rd. Int'l. Cong. Ergon.,Univ. of Birmingham, Sept.1967.

"The Estimation of Pilot Workload", Advisory Group for Aerospace R&D, Ad Hoc Panel on Guidance and Control, Symp. on 'The Human Operator and Aircraft and Missile Control,' Paris, Sept. 1967.

"Topics in Engineering Psychology", Three invited lectures, Mass. Psychol. Assoc., October 1967.

"Where People Look and Why", IEEE Int'n'l. Conv., Symposium on Man-Machine Interface,or Who's in Charge Here?' New York, 1968.

"A Queueing Model of Visual Sampling: experimental results", (w/J.R. Carbonell & J L. Ward), IEEE Int'n'l. Conv., Symp.on 'Man-Machine Interface, or Who's in Charge Here?' New York, 1968.

"Behavioral Measurement of Load Imposed on a Driver by the Driving Task", New England Highway Traffic Safety Conference, Univ. of Rhode Island, 1968.

"The Automobile Windshield as an Extreme Case of a Heads Up Display", Metropolitan Chapter, HFS, Symposium on Head-Up Displays, September 1968.

"Experiments Relating to the Selection of the Next Point of Fixation", 5th Ann. NASA-University Conf. on Manual Control, Cambridge, MA., March, 1969.

"Some Thoughts on Scientific Communication or Who Does What and With Which and to Whom?", Conf. on Innovations in Communications, Amer. Soc. for Information Science, Maryland, April 1970.

"How to Retrieve Everything you Always Wanted to Know About ... in Five Minutes", Symp.on Computer-based Search and Retrieval, APA Ann. Mtg.., Washington, Sept. 1977.

"Are Eye Movements a Waste of Time?", Eastern Psychol. Assoc.Symposium, Boston 1972.

"Human Factors in Communication Systems Failures", IEEE Internat'l Conf. on Cybernetics & Society, Boston, 1973.

"Visual Information Requirements of Helicopter Pilots as a Measure of Skill and Task Difficulty", Conf. on Aircrew Performance in Army Aviation, Fort Rucker, AL, Nov., 1973.

"Characteristics and Limitations of Electro-ocular Recording", Psychonomic Society, 4th Nat'l. Conf. on the Use of On-Line Computers in Psychology, Boston, 1974. (Behav. Res. Methods & Instrumentation, 7: 2,209, 1975.)

"Technological Innovations in Journal Publishing", Workshop for Sociology Editors, Am.Sociol.Ass'n., San Francisco, CA., August, 1975.

"The Scientific Journal of the Future", 9th Annual Meeting, Hum. Fact. Assoc. of Can., Muskoka, Ont, Sept., 1976.

"The Use and Abuse of Forecasting Models", Senior Common Room, Refectory Discourse, New College, Univ of Tor. Feb. 1977.

"Theoretical Issues in Eye-Movement Research", U.S. Naval Personnel Research and Development Center, San Diego, CA Feb., 1977.

"Development of a Mathematical Model of Monitoring Behavior", Dep't.of Ind.Eng.,SUNY, Buffalo, May, 1977.

"Analysis of Man-Machine Systems", Sandia Corp., Albuquerque, NM, June 1977.

"Scientific Publications Systems", Technical Information Panel, Advisory Group for Aerospace R&D, NATO, Oslo, Norway, June 1977.

"The Electronic Journal", PIRA, Res. Org. for Paper, Printing & Packaging Indust., Leatherhead, Surrey, UK June, 1977.

"Mathematical Models of Behavior", Dep't. of Psychology, Stirling Univ., Stirling, Scotland June 1977.

"A Model for Mental Workload", Conf. on Human Workload Theory and Measurement, NATO, Mati, Greece, Sept. 1977.

"Eye Movements in Monitoring Complex Visual Environments", At the Human Factors Engineering Workshop on Visual lnformation Processing, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, Aug. 14-16, 1979.

"Workload in Visual Processing Tasks", At the Human Factors Engineering Workshop on Visual Information Processing, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, Aug. 14-16, 1979.

"Stimulus Determinants of Visual Scanning of Complex Scenes", Invited Fellow's Address, Division 3, American Psychological Association, 87th Annual Convention, New York, Sept. 1-5, 1979.

"Mental Work Load - The Emergent Problem of Engineering Psychology", Presidential Address, Division 21, American Psychological Association, 87th Annual Convention, New York, Sept. 1-5, 1979.

"Electronic Libraries and Publication", Seminar at New Brunswick Community College, St. John, New Brunswick, Oct. 25, 1979.

"On the Nature of Human Error", Colloquium, Department of Psychology, UC San Diego, Nov. 8, 1979.

"Mental Workload - Is it Real?", Refectory Discourse, Center for Human Information Processing, UC San Diego, Nov. 9, 1979.

"Engineering Psychology", Seminar-lecture at UC San Diego, Nov. 9, 1979.

"Stimulus Determinants of Visual Scanning of Complex Scenes", American Psychological Association, New York, 1979.

"System Induced Human Error", Am. Assoc. Advancement of Science, Ann. Mtg. San Francisco, CA., January 1980.

"Eye Movements, Big and Small", Seminar, Department of Psychology, UC Santa Barbara, January, 1980.

"On the Nature of Human Error", A perception Seminar at the Department of Psychology, UC Santa Barbara, Feb. 1980.

"The Electronic Journal", EURIM 4;Brussels, Belgium, March 23-26, 1980.

"The Nature of Error",3 Lectures:Inst.for Perc., Soesterberg, Netherlands, March 28,1980. Aston University, Birmingham, UK, March 31, 1980. University of Warwick, UK, April 1, 1980.

"Theories of Workload", Two-day seminar at U.S.Army Human Engineering Lab, Aberdeen, MD, April 9-10, 1980.

"The Designer-User Mismatch", Assoc. for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, San Francisco, April 1980.

"The Genesis of Human Error", Seminar: BioTech. Labs, Engineering Systems Dept.UC Los Angeles, April 28, 1980.

"I Have Seen the Future and It Doesn't Work: The Electronic Journal Experiment", Soc.for Scholarly Publishing, Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN June 1980.

"The Methodologies of Workload Measurement and Estimation", Am. Ass'n. for the Advancement of Science, Toronto, 1981.

"Human Error and Human Reliability in Process Control", Engineering Foundation Conf.on Chemical Process Control, Sea Island,GA, 1981.

"A Theory of Human Error", IEEE Standards Workshop on Human Factors and Nuclear Safety, Myrtle Beach, S. Carolina, Sept. 1981.

"Monitors of Human Performance", Invited paper, First Conf. on Aviation Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1983.

"On the Nature and Source of Human Error", Second Conf. on Aviation Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1983.

"At Least Some Errors are Randomly Generated (Freud was wrong)", (w/A.J.Sellen) NASA, 21st Annual Conf. on Manual Control; Columbus, OH, May 1985.

"The Effects of Control Nonlinearities on Tracking Performance", Fourth Conf. on Aviation Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1987.

"A Statistical Model of Human Error Production", (w/A.Sellen), Annual Meeting Amer.Stat.Assoc.,San Francisco, July 1987.

"Tampering in Nuclear Power Control Rooms: Human Factors Issues", Conf. Record, IEEE 4th Conf. on Human Factors and Power Plants, Monterey, CA, June 1988.

"Making the Job Easier: The role of workplace design", Panel on Ergonomic Decisions in the Workplace, Univ. of Southern Maine, 1991.

"Theory and Analysis of Typical Errors in a Medical Setting", Amer.Soc. of Hospital Pharmacists, Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, 1992.

"Why People Mess Up: A Panel Discussion", Fifth IEEE Conf. on Human Factors and Power Plants, Monterey, 1992.

"On the Remedies for Medical Error", Symposium on Human Error and Medical Devices, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Atlanta, 1992.

"Detecting, Correcting and Interrupting Errors", Intravenous Nurses Society Annual Meeting, 1993.

"Error by Design", In Panel on HF and Medical Care: Issues and Examples; Human Factors & Ergonomics Society, Seattle, WA, 1993.

"Reanalysis of Anesthesia Incident Data", Invited Lecture to Staff College, US FDA., Rockville, MD, 1994.

"Design Deficiencies in Anesthesia - a further analysis of the Australian Incident Monitoring Study Data", (with Dr.A.J. Sellen) US FDA, Rockville, MD, 1995.

"Human Error", Lecture in Cognitive Ergonomics Workshop, Ont. Chapter, Human Factors Ass'n of Canada, Toronto, 1996.

"The Open and Obvious Defense", (w/W.H. Ginsburg) In "More Perspectives on Liability in Health Care Delivery", AAMI 31st Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, June 1-5, 1996.

"Investigating Coordination in Multidegree of Freedom Control Time-on-Target Analysis of 6 DOF Tracking", (with S.Zhai) HFES. Annual Meeting 1997, pp. 1249-1253

"Distribution of Visual Attention in Static and Dynamic Displays", Soc. for Imaging Sci. & Tech.,Ann. Symp., San Jose, CA Feb., 1997.

"Monitoring Behavior: Old Theory - New Data", 9th European Conference on Eye Movements, Ulm, Sept., 1997.

"Two Approaches to the Criminalization of Medical Error", Panel: Enhancing Patient Safety: A New Movement in Health Care, HFES Annual Meeting, Chicago, Oct,1998.

"Word Processing System Design and Quality of Writing", Panel Chair and presenter, Human Factors Ass'n. of Canada, Annual Meeting, Mississauga, Ont. Oct., 1998.

"The Designer's Dilemma", Invited address, Human Factors Ass'n. of Canada, Annual Meeting Oct., 1998.

"Error, Negligence, Crime: The Denver Nurses Trial", Annenberg Conference on Enhancing Patient Safety and Reducing Errors in Health Care; Rancho Mirage, CA, Nov. 8-10, 1998.

"Compensatory and Pursuit Tracking", KMDI Lecture, OISE, Nov. 26, 1998.

"Principles of Human Factors Research and Failure Mode Analysis", Amer. Soc. Health-System. Pharm., Annual Meeting. Las Vegas, NV, Dec. 6-10, 1998.

"Current Issues in Medication Safety", (w/M. Cohen) Can. Soc. of Hospital Pharmacists, 30th Annual Professional Practice Conference, Toronto,Feb.3, 1999.

"Medication Errors-Causes and Cures", Workshop (w/D. Rosenbloom) Can. Soc. Hosp. Pharm., 30th Annual Professional Practice Conference, Toronto, Feb.4 1999.

"The Fundamentals of Human Error", Workshop: Medical Devices and Human Errors., Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, San Jose, June 3-8 2000.

"Survey Evidence goes to Court", Professional Marketing Association., Annual Meeting, Toronto, June 7, 2000.

"International Approaches to Patient Safety-What can we learn?", National Symposium on Patient Safety, Partnership for Patient Safety, Dallas, June 28-30, 2000.

"Medical Error is the Same Old Error in a Medical Setting", Symposium: Investigating Medical Error-the Role of the Psychologist, Annual Meeting Amer. Psych. Assn., Washington, DC, August 6, 2000.
Tracking Performance on Combined Compensatory and Pursuit Tasks
PDF File [1.9 MB]
The Peripheral Viewing of Dials
PDF File [1.1 MB]
Man's Capacity to use Information from Complex Displays
PDF File [371.6 KB]
Manual Control and Display in Six Degrees of Freedom
PDF File [1.6 MB]
An Investigation of Visual Attention and Operator Workload Measurement
PDF File [3.7 MB]
Men and Computers
PDF File [2.0 MB]
On the Distribution of Attention in a Dynamic Environment
PDF File [1.4 MB]
A Queueing Model of Visual Sampling; Experimental Validation
PDF File [1.2 MB]
The Estimation of Operator Workload in Complex Systems
PDF File [3.7 MB]
The Retrieval of Phonetically Similar and Dissimilar Category Members
PDF File [1.3 MB]
A Skeptical Believer
PDF File [234.7 KB]
The Scientific Journal of the Future
PDF File [898.0 KB]
Axiomatic Models of Workload
PDF File [463.9 KB]
Is There a Cure for Human Error
PDF File [1.3 MB]
A matter of No Little Gravity
PDF File [575.0 KB]
Design Criteria for the Electronic Journal
PDF File [362.0 KB]
Providing a Sensory Basis for Models of Visual Information Acquisition
Adobe Acrobat document [3.7 MB]
Who is Master; Who Slave?",
PDF File [624.4 KB]
12 Ways to Prevent Medication Errors
PDF File [4.2 MB]
On the Evaluation of Warnings
PDF File [503.2 KB]
Detecting, Correcting and Interrupting Errors
PDF File [1.1 MB]
Identifying Design Deficiencies through Anaesthetic Incidents
PDF File [2.2 MB]

Memorial contributions may be made to The University of Toronto's “John W. Senders Award for Medical Innovation”.  Donations may be made by calling Kristin Philpott at 416-946-7827, or at

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John W. Senders